Archive for September, 2018

Understanding SOx additive functionalities

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SO3 sorption capacity One of the major components of a SOx additive is the functionality of adsorbing SO3 out of the combustion gases in the regenerator. The sorption capacity is directly proportional to the amount of magnesium oxide (MgO) that is contained within the additive. More MgO means more SO3 ‘pick up’ and therefore less […]

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SOx emissions from the FCC

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As was mentioned, 10-20% of FCC feed sulphur ends up in coke. When the coke is combusted, SO2, SO3, COS and H2S are released. In full burn regenerators, there is about 90% sulphur dioxide (SO2) and 10% sulphur trioxide (SO3) with ppm levels of H2S. When excess oxygen is limited in partial burn regenerators, the […]

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Emissions from the FCC – where do they come from?

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For a chemical engineer, the FCC is an incredible unit to work on. It is full of interesting chemistry, mechanical complexity and, no matter how many years’ experience you have with the technology, there always seems to be unknowns. One thing that is known for certain, however, is that part of the feed forms coke […]

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Hydrocracking Technologies – Maximising utilisation via process integration

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Many refiners have been increasing profits by further integrating the hydrocracker with other processing units (delayed coker, solvent deasphalter, FCC, and so on) to maximise the yield of high quality products as refiners choose to increase complexity to enhance profitability. Several companies are looking to reduce capital investment and operating costs by fully integrating hydrotreating […]

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Hydrocracking Technologies – Focus shifting to jet fuel

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Increasing air travel has boosted demand for jet fuel. Refineries are gearing up to make more jet fuel kerosene. For instance, PetroChina has said that it will build a new hydrocracking unit at its Golmud refinery in Qinghai province, China with the capacity to make 150 000 t/y (3200 b/d) of kerosene. The new unit […]

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Hydrocracking Technologies – Processing a variety of feedstocks

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OPEC’s 1.8 million b/d production cut for six months effective from 1 January 2017, extended to March 2018, has narrowed the discounts for heavy high sulphur crudes partly because of the construction of sophisticated refinery capacity around the globe, and partly because OPEC’s supply cut has disproportionately impacted heavy and middleweight grades. Meanwhile, the market […]

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TAN in Crude Fast Measurement for Corrosion Monitoring – 3

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Three methods are commonly used to measure acid number in petroleum products: • ASTM D664-17 Standard Test Method for Acid Number of Petroleum Products by Potentiometric Titration • ASTM D974: Standard Test Method for Acid and Base Number by Color-Indicator Titration • ASTM D8045: Standard Test Method for Acid Number of Crude Oils and Petroleum […]

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TAN in Crude Fast Measurement for Corrosion Monitoring – 2

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Total Acid Number, or TAN, is a measurement of corrosivity in crude oil and is an ASTM standard methodology specified by D664. This method is based on potentiometric titration. There are a number of companies offering devices to implement D664. The most common method used practically by refineries is for their laboratory personnel to run […]

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