Category: Technology

Understanding SOx additive functionalities

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SO3 sorption capacity One of the major components of a SOx additive is the functionality of adsorbing SO3 out of the combustion gases in the regenerator. The sorption capacity is directly proportional to the amount of magnesium oxide (MgO) that is contained within the additive. More MgO means more SO3 ‘pick up’ and therefore less […]

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TAN in Crude Fast Measurement for Corrosion Monitoring – 3

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Three methods are commonly used to measure acid number in petroleum products: • ASTM D664-17 Standard Test Method for Acid Number of Petroleum Products by Potentiometric Titration • ASTM D974: Standard Test Method for Acid and Base Number by Color-Indicator Titration • ASTM D8045: Standard Test Method for Acid Number of Crude Oils and Petroleum […]

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TAN in Crude Fast Measurement for Corrosion Monitoring – 2

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Total Acid Number, or TAN, is a measurement of corrosivity in crude oil and is an ASTM standard methodology specified by D664. This method is based on potentiometric titration. There are a number of companies offering devices to implement D664. The most common method used practically by refineries is for their laboratory personnel to run […]

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TAN in Crude Fast Measurement for Corrosion Monitoring – 1

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Corrosion monitoring does not identify the TAN number for a crude oil, but it identifies the corrosive effect of a higher TAN crude. The fastest measurement of changes in corrosion rates due to changes in TAN for a crude is in-line (intrusive) electrical resistance (ER) probes. Probes can detect metal loss in the nanometer range […]

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Reverse Osmosis Wastewater Recovery Efficiency

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The variation in the recovery percentage is wide, changing a lot from one application to another, and depends on the type of contaminants present, the pretreatment used and the condition of the membranes. It is extremely important to know the limitation of the reverse osmosis (RO) units and sizing the plant according to the target […]

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The Importance of Drilling Automation

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Automation and robotics are currently the topics of interest to oil companies when it comes to well construction; they are focusing on efficiency and drilling innovation that will reduce well costs. When looking at the market segment for drill ships, the spread costs per minute during drilling operations can run over US$500. Every saved minute […]

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Advanced Displacement System Completion Fluid

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The TETRA Advanced Displacement System – TADS™ fluid blend allows for the balanced displacement of synthetic (SBM) and oil-based (OBM) drilling fluids. The fluid blend system was developed in an eff ort to meet demands for more eff icient and environmentally responsible drilling fluid for completion brine displacements. Typical deepwater displacements of SBM use a […]

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High Density, Non-Zinc Completion Fluid

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TETRA CS Neptune® completion fluid is a high-density completion fluid free of solids, zinc and formates. The completion fluid was specifically developed for deepwater and complex high-pressure wells that require high-density clear brine solutions to control well pressure during the completion phase. The fluid addresses the environmental challenges facing offshore oil producers seeking an alternative […]

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Varel’s TRIFORCE™ Focused Force PDC Cutters

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TRIFORCE shaped cutters apply force in a very different way to the concave geometry. Instead of shearing, the ridged cutter profile focuses force on a very small leading edge to fracture and plough through the rock. The ploughing action presents a positive trade off . While it requires a slightly greater force than concave and […]

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Effective Back Rake PDC Cutters

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Concave SCOOP cutters eliminate the fixed link between relief angle and back rake angle. While the cutter’s relief angle is fixed, its concave geometry produces an eff ective back rake that varies depending on the DOC. The radius of the concave surface describes this changing back rake angle relative to the point at which the […]

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